Interpretation of the "artisan spirit" of spreading architects

Zhao Yuanchao, chief architect of the Northwestern Design Institute of China Architecture, said in 'Confessions of Architects', 'Few young architects admit that they are a tradesman, but I now increasingly think that an architect is a tradesman in architecture. A craftsman with a bit of social responsibility. 'This is a correct interpretation of the' craftsmanship spirit ', and it is also a feeling that an architect should have. Because not all architects can enter the design master circle, but the 'extremely beautiful' artisan pursuit of the work is an eternal way.

    'Spirit of Craftsmanship'

    What is an architect? Different architects have different positions. Objectively speaking, an architect is a 'craftsman' hired by the owner. However, an architect is different from an engineer and more different from a builder. He must make a difference in the framework of architectural education, architectural design, and even urban policies.

    The mission of the architect is to act in accordance with the 'applicable, economical, green, and beautiful' architectural principles, and to respect the basic laws of architectural design and the aesthetic elements in architectural design, such as order, system, hierarchy, enclosure, scale, etc. Principles and basic skills. Excessive pursuit of mastery, fashion, and stardom will inevitably lead to impetuous mentality, and eventually not only cause urban architectural works to become 'garbage' that lacks the requirements of architectural guidelines, but also inevitably hurts the architect's own growth. Therefore, a solid study and pursuit, learning from the 'craftsman spirit' to cultivate one's own benefits without harm.

    In addition to the Liang Sicheng Award set up for architects in the Chinese construction industry, there are two other awards, one is the Zhan Tianyou Civil Engineering Award, and the other is the Luban Award for Chinese Construction Engineering. Although these two awards are construction engineering construction awards, the necessary conditions for selection are reasonable, advanced and high-quality engineering design.

    The design of the Luban Award trophy adopts the image of a craftsman in the costume of Lu Guo in the Spring and Autumn Period. The left hand holds the ink fountain curled on the chest, and the right hand holds the classmate to pull out the ink line and stop at the waist side.

    From the 'style thunder' family to the 'five masters' of architecture known in China and the world-Nanjing Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum designer Lu Yanzhi, Liu Dunzhen who has made significant contributions to Chinese residential architecture, more than 100 design works, and outstanding contributions in architectural garden theory Tong Tong, the founder of Tsinghua University, one of the pioneers of architectural education in China, and Liang Sicheng, the founder of Tsinghua University, and Yang Tingbao, a well-known design master in the Chinese architectural world; Master Zhang Jinqiu. From ancient times to today, the success of the masters has come from solid efforts and bit by bit of design and cultivation. The more you put yourself in the craftsman's pile, the more the results can reflect 'applicable, economical, green, and beautiful.'

    In the rapid process of urbanization, many valuable things have been lost. The experience of the ten-year review of the protection of Tianjin's historical buildings shows that the spirit of artisans will not be activated in urban planning and architectural design, and it will be difficult to achieve a systematic and authentic urban renewal without starting with craftsmen looking for architectural skills.

    Starting from the authenticity of building restoration, inheriting the 'artisan spirit' of the architect, and implementing it in the details and details is to find the most needed artisan genes.

    For example, Tianjin Lishunde Hotel was the first foreign hotel in modern China to be expanded in 1884. Renovate based on retaining the 'highest historical value and artistic value', design on the basis of maintaining the building's 'original shape, original structure, raw materials, original craftsmanship', and use traditional craftsmanship for construction, thanks to the architect's study of craftsmanship spirit.

    'Spirit of Craftsmanship' All Architects Should Practice

    How to cultivate the 'craftsman spirit' of the architect is a topic that needs to be continuously deepened and practiced. It is important that the architect consciously cultivate the consciousness, know what kind of design can create a beautiful living space, and how can the architect 'confess' Explain the design concept of 'artisan spirit' for the society.

    Attention to the 'craftsman spirit' must start from the essence of cognitive architectural design, and we must see that all prominent landmarks are not the personal achievements of a master, but also a professional achievement, which are often hundreds of people, dozens of Professionally created works, thousands of drawings are the cornerstone of excellent design works.

    Craftsmen must not be left out, nor should they be buried, but for many years, we have been too much to promote the 'master' thought and contribution of light. Excessive eruptions are beads and neon, and the architects who silently dedicate themselves 'under the stage' have Too much guilt. Based on this, the author believes that starting from the cultivation of the 'artisan spirit' that the industry should possess, at least we should pay attention to the construction of the following industries:

    First, it is necessary to cultivate the quality awareness of architects. It is necessary to reaffirm the ancient 'national standard' and the excellent management methods of the system. As early as in the Spring and Autumn Period, there was an 'Examination for the Workers', which clarified the norms for construction management and construction. During the Sui and Tang dynasties, a Ministry of Industry was set up in Shangshu Province. In the Northern Song Dynasty, the construction of the city had the 'French Building Style'. In the Southern Song Dynasty, the 'formula' of the construction project was even worse. The famous 'Building Style' and 'Wood Scripture' appeared. 'National standard' is not a child's play. If not, the punishment will be served. The Ming Dynasty Law and the Qing Dynasty Laws both have the 'Work Law', which is a law specifically for engineering and construction, in addition to a very strict quality traceability system. This is a quality strategy that has implications for today's people. It is an indispensable system content in the 'artisan spirit' of architects, and it is also a 'quality factor' that architects should strengthen in practice.

    Second, we must cultivate the humanistic awareness of architects. The humanistic spirit provides correct value orientation for architectural creation. Based on the humanistic spirit, the pursuit of the free and comprehensive development of human beings is essentially following the principle of putting people first and pursuing the basic goals of equality, justice, happiness, and tolerance. The 'beautiful' architectural policy is achieved by means of freedom and happiness. If the architectural design deviates from the value and orientation of the humanistic spirit, it will not bring happiness and wealth to the city and society, but debt or crisis. Generally, the emphasis on controlling urban architecture from a cultural perspective requires the construction of a humanistic city. What is required is a design of urban architecture with distinctive styles and profound cultural heritage. The architect's works must be as natural as possible and natural. Unification. ' At the same time, in the process of promoting the modernization of urban architecture, we must keep in mind the cultural spirit and humanistic spirit of the 'self-beauty' of the Chinese civilization.

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